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Everything you need to know about Computed Tomography (CT) & CT Scanning

Chest: Thymus Imaging Pearls - Educational Tools | CT Scanning | CT Imaging | CT Scan Protocols - CTisus
Imaging Pearls ❯ Chest ❯ Thymus

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  • “Thymic neoplasms are rare tumors that account for less than 1% of all adult malignancies, with reported incidences of one to five cases per 1 million people per year.The primary epithelial neoplasms of the thymus are thymoma and thymic carcinoma, with thymoma being more common. Thymic carcinoma is a more aggressive disease that is often diagnosed with needle biopsy before treatment planning; it has been discussed elsewhere.”
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • Thymomas typically occur in patients older than 40 years of age, are rare in children, and affect men and women equally. Most thymomas are solid neoplasms that are encapsulated and localized to the thymus. Approximately one-third exhibit necrosis, hemorrhage, or cystic components, and approximately one-third invade the tumor capsule and the surrounding structures.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • “Thymomas are slow-growing neoplasms that may exhibit aggressive behavior such as invasion of adjacent structures and involvement of the pleura and pericardium, but distant metastases are rare”.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • “Myasthenia gravis associated with thymoma occurs most frequently in women. Between 30% and 50% of patients with a thymoma have myasthenia gravis, whereas 10%–15% of patients with myasthenia gravis have a thymoma.Ten percent of patients with a thymoma have hypogammaglobulinemia, whereas 5% have pure red cell aplasia.Thymomas are also associated with various autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, and myocarditis”.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • “The role of imaging is to initially diagnose and properly stage thymoma, with emphasis on the detection of local invasion and distant spread of disease, to identify candidates for preoperative neoadjuvant therapy (ie, those with stage III or IV disease). Imaging of treated patients is di- rected at identifying resectable recurrent disease, since patients with completely resected recurrent disease have similar outcomes as those without recurrence.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • Thymomas may result in vascular invasion , pleural involvement, or pericardial dis- semination. Direct signs of vascular involvement include (a) an irregular vessel lumen contour, (b) vascular encasement or obliteration, and(c) endoluminal soft tissue, which may extend into cardiac chambers (3). Pleural dissemination (“drop metastases”) manifests at CT as one or more pleural nodules or masses, which can be smooth, nodular, or diffuse and are almost always ipsilateral to the anterior mediastinal tumor.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
  • “The differential diagnosis for anterior mediastinal tumors includes other primary thymic malignancies (eg, thymic carcinoma, thymic carcinoid tumor), nonthymic tumors (eg, lymphoma, germ cell tumor, small-cell lung cancer), and mediastinal metastasis.”.
    Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis, Staging, and Treatment of Thymoma
    Benveniste MFK et al.
    RadioGraphics 2011; 31:1847–1861
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