Radiomics in CT and MR imaging of the liver and pancreas: tools with potential for clinical application
M Álvaro Berbís, Félix Paulano Godino, Júlia Rodríguez-Comas, Enrique Nava, Roberto García-Figueiras, Sandra Baleato-González, Antonio Luna
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2024 Jan;49(1):322-340. doi: 10.1007/s00261-023-04071-0. Epub 2023 Oct 27.
Radiomics allows the extraction of quantitative imaging features from clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) studies. The advantages of radiomics have primarily been exploited in oncological applications, including better characterization and staging of oncological lesions and prediction of patient outcomes and treatment response. The potential introduction of radiomics in the clinical setting requires the establishment of a standardized radiomics pipeline and a quality assurance program. Radiomics and texture analysis of the liver have improved the differentiation of hypervascular lesions such as adenomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the arterial phase, and in the pretreatment determination of HCC prognostic factors (e.g., tumor grade, microvascular invasion, Ki-67 proliferation index). Radiomics of pancreatic CT and MR images has enhanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma detection and its differentiation from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors, mass-forming chronic pancreatitis, or autoimmune pancreatitis. Radiomics can further help to better characterize incidental pancreatic cystic lesions, accurately discriminating benign from malignant intrapancreatic mucinous neoplasms. Nonetheless, despite their encouraging results and exciting potential, these tools have yet to be implemented in the clinical setting. This non-systematic review will describe the essential steps in the implementation of the radiomics and feature extraction workflow from liver and pancreas CT and MRI studies for their potential clinical application. A succinct overview of reported radiomics applications in the liver and pancreas and the challenges and limitations of their implementation in the clinical setting is also discussed, concluding with a brief exploration of the future perspectives of radiomics in the gastroenterology field.