A Clinical User Study Investigating the Benefits of Adaptive Volumetric Illumination Sampling
Valentin Kraft, Christian Schumann, Daniela Salzmann, Dirk Weyhe, Gabriel Zachmann, Andrea Schenk
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph . 2024 Jan 17:PP. doi: 10.1109/TVCG.2024.3353926. Online ahead of print.
Accurate and fast understanding of the patient's anatomy is crucial in surgical decision making and particularly important in visceral surgery. Sophisticated visualization techniques such as 3D Volume Rendering can aid the surgeon and potentially lead to a benefit for the patient. Recently, we proposed a novel volume rendering technique called Adaptive Volumetric Illumination Sampling (AVIS) that can generate realistic lighting in real-time, even for high resolution images and volumes but without introducing additional image noise. In order to evaluate this new technique, we conducted a randomized, three-period crossover study comparing AVIS to conventional Direct Volume Rendering (DVR) and Path Tracing (PT). CT datasets from 12 patients were evaluated by 10 visceral surgeons who were either senior physicians or experienced specialists. The time needed for answering clinically relevant questions as well as the correctness of the answers were analyzed for each visualization technique. In addition to that, the perceived workload during these tasks was assessed for each technique, respectively. The results of the study indicate that AVIS has an advantage in terms of both time efficiency and most aspects of the perceived workload, while the average correctness of the given answers was very similar for all three methods. In contrast to that, Path Tracing seems to show particularly high values for mental demand and frustration. We plan to repeat a similar study with a larger participant group to consolidate the results.