Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Ovary: clues for radiologists to perform a correct diagnosis
Susana Rodrigues, Miguel Braga, Ana Félix, Teresa Margarida Cunha
Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) is an uncommon high-grade primary epithelial ovarian cancer, covering about 10-12% of all ovarian malignancies. It has a strong association with endometriosis.
OCCC diagnosis, at advanced stages, has an aggressive biological behaviour, and the therapeutic strategies for ovarian OCCC are somehow different from other ovarian carcinomas. Therefore, early diagnosis of these tumours is of extreme importance.
As some ovarian tumours subtypes have distinguishing features, it is possible to differentiate them based on their imaging characteristics, which can guide patient management and help the clinicians and pathologists in their diagnosis.
A large mass on one side of the ovary that is mostly cystic, with a focal or multifocal irregular eccentric growing solid mural nodules or projections protruding into the cystic space, may suggest clear cell carcinoma of the ovary diagnosis. The solid nodules usually have an intermediate signal on T2-weighted images. The cystic component can be either single or multilocular, and the contents may contain protein or blood. CT scanning is still the preferred method for preoperative staging and postoperative restaging, and radiologists are crucial in identifying this type of tumour.
We reviewed the imaging files of patients with surgically proven clear cell carcinoma at the specimens, and our findings agree with previous studies. This paper aims to perform a comprehensive revision of OCCC's radiological and clinic-pathological features and assist radiologists in recognizing OCCC and narrowing down the possibilities of differential diagnosis.