Risk of Acute Kidney Injury Following IV Iodinated Contrast Media Exposure: 2023 Update, From the AJR Special Series on Contrast Media
Jennifer S McDonald, Robert J McDonald
AJR Am J Roentgenol . 2023 Oct 4. doi: 10.2214/AJR.23.30037. Online ahead of print.
Iodinated contrast material (ICM) has revolutionized the field of diagnostic radiology through improvements in diagnostic performance and expansion in clinical indications for radiographic and CT examinations. Historically, nephrotoxicity was a feared complication of ICM use, thought to be associated with a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Such fears often precluded use of ICM in imaging evaluations, commonly at the expense of diagnostic performance and timely diagnosis. Over the past 20 years, the nephrotoxic risk of ICM has become a topic of debate, as more recent evidence from higher-quality studies now suggest that many cases of what was considered contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) were likely cases of mistaken causal attribution; most of these cases represented either acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by any of myriad other known factors that can adversely affect renal function and were coincidentally present at the time of contrast media exposure (contrast-associated AKI (CA-AKI)) or a manifestation of the normal variation in renal function that increases with worsening renal function. This review discusses the current state of knowledge on CI-AKI and CA-AKI including the incidence, risk factors, outcomes, and prophylactic strategies in the identification and management of these clinical conditions.