Improving Pancreatic Cyst Management: Artificial Intelligence-Powered Prediction of Advanced Neoplasms through Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Confocal Endomicroscopy
Joanna Jiang, Wei-Lun Chao, Troy Cao, Stacey Culp, Bertrand Napoléon, Samer El-Dika, Jorge D Machicado, Rahul Pannala, Shaffer Mok, Anjuli K Luthra, Venkata S Akshintala, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Somashekar G Krishna
Biomimetics (Basel) . 2023 Oct 19;8(6):496. doi: 10.3390/biomimetics8060496.
Despite the increasing rate of detection of incidental pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs), current standard-of-care methods for their diagnosis and risk stratification remain inadequate. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are the most prevalent PCLs. The existing modalities, including endoscopic ultrasound and cyst fluid analysis, only achieve accuracy rates of 65-75% in identifying carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia in IPMNs. Furthermore, surgical resection of PCLs reveals that up to half exhibit only low-grade dysplastic changes or benign neoplasms. To reduce unnecessary and high-risk pancreatic surgeries, more precise diagnostic techniques are necessary. A promising approach involves integrating existing data, such as clinical features, cyst morphology, and data from cyst fluid analysis, with confocal endomicroscopy and radiomics to enhance the prediction of advanced neoplasms in PCLs. Artificial intelligence and machine learning modalities can play a crucial role in achieving this goal. In this review, we explore current and future techniques to leverage these advanced technologies to improve diagnostic accuracy in the context of PCLs.