Imaging of Castleman Disease
Marika A Pitot, Ali D Tahboub Amawi, Lauren F Alexander, Jordan D LeGout, Lara Walkoff, Patrick J Navin, Akira Kawashima, Adam J Wood, Angela Dispenzieri, Sudhakar K Venkatesh
Radiographics . 2023 Aug;43(8):e220210. doi: 10.1148/rg.220210.
Castleman disease (CD) is a group of rare and complex lymphoproliferative disorders that can manifest in two general forms: unicentric CD (UCD) and multicentric CD (MCD). These two forms differ in clinical manifestation, imaging appearances, treatment options, and prognosis. UCD typically manifests as a solitary enlarging mass that is discovered incidentally or after development of compression-type symptoms. MCD usually manifests acutely with systemic symptoms including fever and weight loss. As a whole, CD involves lymph nodes throughout the chest, neck, abdomen, pelvis, and axilla and can have a wide variety of imaging appearances. Most commonly, lymph nodes or masses in UCD occur in the chest, classically with well-defined borders, hyperenhancement, and possible characteristic patterns of calcification and/or feeding vessels. Lymph nodes affected by MCD, while also hyperenhancing, tend to involve multiple nodal chains and manifest alongside anasarca or hepatosplenomegaly. The polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes (POEMS) subtype of MCD may demonstrate lytic or sclerotic osseous lesions in addition to features typical of MCD. Since a diagnosis of CD based solely on imaging findings is often not possible, pathologic confirmation with core needle biopsy and/or surgical excision is necessary. Nevertheless, imaging plays a crucial role in supporting the diagnosis of CD, guiding appropriate regions for biopsy, and excluding other potential causes or mimics of disease. CT is frequently the initial imaging technique used in evaluating potential CD. MRI and PET play important roles in thoroughly evaluating the disease and determining its extent, especially the MCD form. Complete surgical excision is typically curative for UCD. MCD usually requires systemic therapy.