Vineet K Raghu, Anika S Walia, Aniket N Zinzuwadia, Reece J Goiffon, Jo-Anne O Shepard, Hugo J W L Aerts, Inga T Lennes, Michael T Lu
JAMA Netw Open . 2022 Dec 1;5(12):e2248793. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.48793.
Importance: Lung cancer screening with chest computed tomography (CT) prevents lung cancer death; however, fewer than 5% of eligible Americans are screened. CXR-LC, an open-source deep learning tool that estimates lung cancer risk from existing chest radiograph images and commonly available electronic medical record (EMR) data, may enable automated identification of high-risk patients as a step toward improving lung cancer screening participation.
Objective: To validate CXR-LC using EMR data to identify individuals at high-risk for lung cancer to complement 2022 US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) lung cancer screening eligibility guidelines.
Design, setting, and participants: This prognostic study compared CXR-LC estimates with CMS screening guidelines using patient data from a large US hospital system. Included participants were persons who currently or formerly smoked cigarettes with an outpatient posterior-anterior chest radiograph between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014, with no history of lung cancer or screening CT. Data analysis was performed between May 2021 and June 2022.
Exposures: CXR-LC lung cancer screening eligibility (previously defined as having a 3.297% or greater 12-year risk) based on inputs (chest radiograph image, age, sex, and whether currently smoking) extracted from the EMR.
Main outcomes and measures: 6-year incident lung cancer.
Results: A total of 14 737 persons were included in the study population (mean [SD] age, 62.6 [6.8] years; 7154 [48.5%] male; 204 [1.4%] Asian, 1051 [7.3%] Black, 432 [2.9%] Hispanic, 12 330 [85.2%] White) with a 2.4% rate of incident lung cancer over 6 years (361 patients with cancer). CMS eligibility could be determined in 6277 patients (42.6%) using smoking pack-year and quit-date from the EMR. Patients eligible by both CXR-LC and 2022 CMS criteria had a high rate of lung cancer (83 of 974 patients [8.5%]), higher than those eligible by 2022 CMS criteria alone (5 of 177 patients [2.8%]; P < .001). Patients eligible by CXR-LC but not 2022 CMS criteria also had a high 6-year incidence of lung cancer (121 of 3703 [3.3%]). In the 8460 cases (57.4%) where CMS eligibility was unknown, CXR-LC eligible patients had a 5-fold higher rate of lung cancer than ineligible (127 of 5177 [2.5%] vs 18 of 2283 [0.5%]; P < .001). Similar results were found in subgroups, including female patients and Black persons.
Conclusions and relevance: Using routine chest radiographs and other data automatically extracted from the EMR, CXR-LC identified high-risk individuals who may benefit from lung cancer screening CT.