Zihua Lu, Lihui Zhang, Liwen Yao, Dexin Gong, Lianlian Wu, Meiqing Xia, Jun Zhang, Wei Zhou, Xu Huang, Chunping He, Huiling Wu, Chenxia Zhang, Xun Li, Honggang Yu
JAMA Netw Open . 2023 Jan 3;6(1):e2253840. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.53840.
Importance: Time of day was associated with a decline in adenoma detection during colonoscopy. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems are effective in improving the adenoma detection rate (ADR), but the performance of AI during different times of the day remains unknown.
Objective: To validate whether the assistance of an AI system could overcome the time-related decline in ADR during colonoscopy.
Design, setting, and participants: This cohort study is a secondary analysis of 2 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCT) from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Consecutive patients undergoing colonoscopy were randomly assigned to either the AI-assisted group or unassisted group from June 18, 2019, to September 6, 2019, and July 1, 2020, to October 15, 2020. The ADR of early and late colonoscopy sessions per half day were compared before and after the intervention of the AI system. Data were analyzed from March to June 2022.
Exposure: Conventional colonoscopy or AI-assisted colonoscopy.
Main outcomes and measures: Adenoma detection rate.
Results: A total of 1780 patients (mean [SD] age, 48.61 [13.35] years, 837 [47.02%] women) were enrolled. A total of 1041 procedures (58.48%) were performed in early sessions, with 357 randomized into the unassisted group (34.29%) and 684 into the AI group (65.71%). A total of 739 procedures (41.52%) were performed in late sessions, with 263 randomized into the unassisted group (35.59%) and 476 into the AI group (64.41%). In the unassisted group, the ADR in early sessions was significantly higher compared with that of late sessions (13.73% vs 5.70%; P = .005; OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.31-4.47). After the intervention of the AI system, as expected, no statistically significant difference was found (22.95% vs 22.06%, P = .78; OR, 0.96; 95% CI; 0.71-1.29). Furthermore, the AI systems showed better assistance ability on ADR in late sessions compared with early sessions (odds ratio, 3.81; 95% CI, 2.10-6.91 vs 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10-2.34).
Conclusions and relevance: In this cohort study, AI systems showed higher assistance ability in late sessions per half day, which suggests the potential to maintain high quality and homogeneity of colonoscopies and further improve endoscopist performance in large screening programs and centers with high workloads.