Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: a 2022 update for radiologists
Samuel J Galgano, Ajaykumar C Morani, Dheeraj R Gopireddy, Kedar Sharbidre, David D B Bates, Ajit H Goenka, Hina Arif-Tiwari, Malak Itani, Amir Iravani, Sanaz Javadi, Silvana Faria, Chandana Lall, Emily Bergsland, Sadhna Verma, Isaac R Francis, Daniel M Halperin, Deyali Chatterjee, Priya Bhosale, Motoyo Yano
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2022 Dec;47(12):3962-3970. doi: 10.1007/s00261-022-03466-9. Epub 2022 Mar 4.
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PaNENs) are a unique group of pancreatic neoplasms with a wide range of clinical presentations and behaviors. Given their heterogeneous appearance and increasing detection on cross-sectional imaging, it is essential that radiologists understand the variable presentation and distinctions PaNENs display compared to other pancreatic neoplasms. Additionally, some of these neoplasms may be hormonally functional, and it is imperative that radiologists be aware of the common clinical presentations of hormonally active PaNENs. Knowledge of PaNEN pathology and treatments may influence which imaging modality is optimal for each patient. Each imaging modality used for PaNENs has distinct advantages and disadvantages, particularly in different treatment settings. Thus, the focus of this manuscript is to provide an update for the radiologist on PaNEN pathology, imaging, and treatments.