Neuroendocrine neoplasm imaging: protocols by site of origin
Sooyoung Martin, Amir Iravani, Anup S Shetty, Maria Zulfiqar, Ajaykumar Morani, Motoyo Yano, Priya R Bhosale, Malak Itani
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2022 Dec;47(12):4081-4095. doi: 10.1007/s00261-022-03713-z. Epub 2022 Oct 28.
With the relatively low incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), most radiologists are not familiar with their optimal imaging techniques. The imaging protocols for NENs should be tailored to the site of origin to accurately define local extension of NEN at time of staging. Patterns of spread and recurrence should be taken into consideration when choosing protocols for detection of recurrence and metastases. This paper will present the recommended CT and MRI imaging protocols for gastro-enteric and pancreatic NENs based on site of origin or predominant pattern of metastatic disease, and explain the rationale for MRI contrast type, contrast timing, as well as specific sequences in MRI. We will also briefly comment on PET/CT and PET/MRI imaging protocols.