Assessing CT imaging features combined with CEA and CA125 levels to identify endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2021 Jun;46(6):2367-2375. doi: 10.1007/s00261-020-02571-x.
Miaomiao Li, Jing Tan, Ya Zhang, Conghui Ai, Hongbo Wang, Huimei Zhang, Yan Jin, Yizhou Chen
Purpose: To improve the diagnosis and identification of ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC), we evaluated CT imaging findings and cut-off values for CEA and CA125.
Methods: The CT features and tumour markers (tumour size, location, morphology, composition, number of cysts, growth pattern of the mural nodules, mural nodule HWR, enhancement of the mural nodules, ascites, complications, CEA level, CA125 level) of 55 tumours in 52 patients with CCC, confirmed by surgery and pathology at the Yunnan Cancer Hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 30, 2018, were compared with those of 41 tumours in 36 patients with EC. All patients had a long history of endometriosis. Statistical analysis was performed using t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Results: CCC and EC presented as large oval or irregular mixed cystic-solid masses in the pelvic region, with moderately delayed enhancement of the solid components. There was a statistically significant difference between the number of cysts, the growth pattern of the mural nodules, the presence/absence of ascites, and the levels of CEA and CA125 (P < 0.05). Most CCCs had unilocular cysts, mural nodules that were polypoid structures, and no ascites (46/55, 33/55, 42/55); most ECs had multilocular cysts and broad-based nodular structures and were ascites positive (28/41, 31/41, 21/41). The CEA positive rate was lower in the CCC group than in the EC group (2/52, 3.8% versus 11/36, 30.6%, P < 0.05), and the CA125 positive rate was high in both the CCC and EC groups (44/52, 84.6% versus EC = 35/36, 97.2%, P = 0.118). The ROC curves revealed that when the values of CEA and CA125 were higher than the cut-off values (CEA = 3.270 µg/L, CA125 = 589.400 kU/L), the diagnostic efficiency of CEA was 0.723, and the diagnostic specificity of CEA was as high as 0.903.
Conclusions: The number of cysts, growth pattern of the mural nodules, presence/absence of ascites, and levels of CEA and CA125 were useful factors for distinguishing CCC from EC; the best cut-off values of CEA and CA125 for distinguishing CCC from EC were 3.270 and 589.40, respectively. These findings may be helpful for correctly diagnosing and identifying CCC and EC.
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