Radiologic serosal invasion sign as a new criterion of T4a gastric cancer on computed tomography: diagnostic performance and prognostic significance in patients with advanced gastric cancer
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2020 Oct;45(10):2950-2959. doi: 10.1007/s00261-019-02156-3.
Myung-Won You, Soyoung Park, Hye Jin Kang, Dong Ho Lee
Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic performance and prognostic significance of a new criterion for radiologic T4a staging on computed tomography (CT) in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC).
Methods: Between January 2010 and April 2019, 101 patients with pathologically confirmed gastric cancer were collected. Among them, 53 patients with pathologic T3 and T4a cancers were included in this study. Three reviewers assessed preoperative CT scans for radiologic T staging in two sessions, independently and in consensus at a 2-week interval, while blinded about the pathologic T stage. The radiologic serosal invasion sign was defined as a nodular extension from the outer gastric wall reaching beyond the perigastric vascular plane and adopted as a new CT criterion for T4a cancer. We evaluated the diagnostic performance, interobserver agreement, and prognostic significance of this sign for the postoperative recurrence.
Results: There were 46 pathologic T3 cancers (86.7%) and seven pathologic T4a cancers (13.2%). The diagnostic performance of the radiologic serosal invasion sign in the differentiation between T3 and T4a cancers was as follows: sensitivity, 91.3%; specificity, 71.43%; and accuracy, 88.68% for R1 and sensitivity, 78.26%; specificity, 85.71%; and accuracy, 79.25% for R2. The k-value was 0.64. Among the clinical and pathologic variables, radiologic T4a sign [hazard ratio (HR): 7.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.36-26.86, p = 0.001], pathologic T4a (HR 9.82, 95% CI 2.35-40.95, p = 0.002), tumor size (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.35, p = 0.026), and lymphovascular invasion (HR 6.39, 95% CI 1.42-28.75, p = 0.015) were the significant factors for postoperative recurrence.
Conclusions: Radiologic serosal invasion sign is reliable as a new CT criterion for T4a cancer staging in patients with advanced gastric cancer, demonstrating 80% to 88% accuracy. Radiologic serosal invasion sign can also serve as a prognostic factor for postoperative recurrence as well as pathologic T4a stage.
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