Imaging and clinical manifestations of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related colitis in cancer patients treated with monotherapy or combination therapy
Abdom Radiol (NY) . 2020 Oct;45(10):3028-3035. doi: 10.1007/s00261-019-02334-3.
Alice C Shieh, Ezgi Guler, David Pfau, Ethan Radzinsky, Daniel A Smith, Christopher Hoimes, Nikhil H Ramaiya, Sree Harsha Tirumani
Purpose: To determine the frequency, imaging, and clinical manifestations of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-related colitis in cancer patients on monotherapy or combination therapy.
Methods: The electronic medical records of 1044 cancer patients who received ICIs were retrospectively reviewed to identify 48 patients who had a clinical diagnosis of immune-related colitis. Imaging studies were reviewed to identify patients with imaging manifestations of colitis. Demographic data, type of ICIs, symptoms, presence of other immune-related adverse events (irAEs), and management were recorded.
Results: There was imaging evidence of immune-related colitis in 34 patients (24 men; median age: 63.5 years). The median time to onset of colitis was 75 days (IQR 25-75, 49.5-216 days) in patients receiving monotherapy (group 1) and 78 days (IQR 25-75, 44.3-99.5 days) in patients undergoing combination therapy (group 2) following start of ICI. Symptoms included diarrhea (91.1% [31 of 34]), nausea/vomiting (52.9% [18 of 34]), and abdominal pain (52.9% [18 of 34]). The most common imaging findings were bowel wall thickening (97% [33 of 34]) and fluid-filled colon (82.3% [28 of 34]). Colitis was diffuse in 21 of 34 (61.8%) patients. Imaging manifestations did not differ between the two groups (p > 0.05). Steroids and antibiotics were used to treat colitis in 29 of 34 (85.2%) and 13 of 34 (38.2%) patients, respectively. No patients in group 1 experienced concurrent irAEs, but 5 of 18 (27.8%) of patients in group 2 had other irAEs (p = 0.046).
Conclusion: Immune-related colitis occurred in 3.3% of patients receiving ICIs with bowel wall thickening, fluid-filled colon and pancolitis being the most common imaging manifestations. Imaging manifestations did not differ between patients receiving monotherapy or combination therapy. However, concurrent irAEs were significantly observed in patients undergoing combination therapy.
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