Hypersensitivity Reactions to Iodinated Contrast Media: A Multicenter Study of 196 081 Patients.
Radiology. 2019 Oct;293(1):117-124. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2019190485. Epub 2019 Sep 3.
Cha MJ, Kang DY, Lee W, Yoon SH, Choi YH, Byun JS, Lee J, Kim YH, Choo KS, Cho BS, Jeon KN, Jung JW, Kang HR.
Background: Multicenter studies may be required for establishing guidelines for safe usage of iodinated contrast media (ICM).
Purpose: To identify the prevalence, patterns, risk factors, and preventive measures for ICM-related hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs).
Materials and Methods: Between March 2017 and October 2017, a total of 196 081 patients who underwent ICM administration were enrolled from seven participating institutions. The occurrence of HSRs and baseline patient information were recorded. χ2 and Student t test were performed, and logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk factors that predict occurrence and recurrence of HSR.
Results: Among 196 081 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 59.1 years ± 16.0; 105 014 men and 91 067 women) who underwent ICM administration, the overall prevalence of HSRs was 0.73% (1433 of 196 081), and severe reactions occurred in 0.01% (17 of 196 081). Conditional logistic regression for patients with HSR (n = 1433) and a control group (1:1 matched group for age, sex, ICM product, and institution) demonstrated that a patient's previous individual history of an ICM-related HSR (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 198.8; P < .001), hyperthyroidism (adjusted OR, 3.6; P = .04), drug allergy (adjusted OR, 3.5; P < .001), and other allergic diseases (adjusted OR, 6.8; P < .001) and a family history of ICM-related HSRs (adjusted OR, 14.0; P = .01) were predictors of HSR occurrence. Logistic regression analysis showed that use of premedication with antihistamine (OR, 0.5; P = .01) and change in the generic profile of ICM (OR, 0.5; P < .001) were preventive against recurrent HSR.
Conclusion: Family history as well as previous individual history of hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to iodinated contrast media (ICM) were risk factors for HSR occurrence, suggesting a potential genetic predisposition. A change in the culprit ICM and premedication with antihistamine are useful for reducing the recurrence of HSRs.
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