What a difference a delay makes! CT urogram: a pictorial essay.
Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019 Jun 18. doi: 10.1007/s00261-019-02086-0. [Epub ahead of print]
Noorbakhsh A, Aganovic L, Vahdat N, Fazeli S, Chung R, Cassidy F.
PURPOSE: The aim of this pictorial essay is to demonstrate several cases where the diagnosis would have been difficult or impossible without the excretory phase image of CT urography.
METHODS: A brief discussion of CT urography technique and dose reduction is followed by several cases illustrating the utility of CT urography.
RESULTS: CT urography has become the primary imaging modality for evaluation of hematuria, as well as in the staging and surveillance of urinary tract malignancies. CT urography includes a non-contrast phase and contrast-enhanced nephrographic and excretory (delayed) phases. While the three phases add to the diagnostic ability of CT urography, it also adds potential patient radiation dose. Several techniques including automatic exposure control, iterative reconstruction algorithms, higher noise tolerance, and split-bolus have been successfully used to mitigate dose. The excretory phase is timed such that the excreted contrast opacifies the urinary collecting system and allows for greater detection of filling defects or other abnormalities. Sixteen cases illustrating the utility of excretory phase imaging are reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: Excretory phase imaging of CT urography can be an essential tool for detecting and appropriately characterizing urinary tract malignancies, renal papillary and medullary abnormalities, CT radiolucent stones, congenital abnormalities, certain chronic inflammatory conditions, and perinephric collections.
Read Full Article Here: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00261-019-02086-0