DWI of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Pilot Study to Estimate the Correlation With Metastatic Disease Potential and Overall Survival.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Feb;212(2):323-331. doi: 10.2214/AJR.18.20017. Epub 2018 Dec 4.
Garces-Descovich A1, Morrison TC2, Beker K1, Jaramillo-Cardoso A1, Moser AJ3, Mortele KJ1.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and the presence or development of metastasis and overall survival (OS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of 290 consecutive patients with histopathologically proven PDAC from January 2013 to December 2014, staging DWI was performed for 124 patients. Image quality was adequate in 112 studies. Sixty-five patients were treatment naïve, but 17 of the 65 were excluded because of the presence of other associated pancreatic pathologic abnormalities. Data for the remaining 48 patients (24 men and 24 women; median age, 65.5 years; interquartile range, 56-77 years) were obtained during a 4-year follow-up period (mean [± SD], 397 ± 415.1 days). The correlation between ADC and the presence or development of metastasis was assessed using descriptive statistics. OS was determined and mortality analysis was performed using Pearson correlation and Kaplan-Meier curves.
RESULTS: Of 48 patients, 10 had metastases at staging MRI, and 12 later developed metastatic disease. Among the latter, the mean time from staging MRI to metastasis was 258 ± 274.1 days. Most (86%) metastases were hepatic (n = 19). During the follow-up period, the remaining 26 patients (54%) never developed metastases. Patients with metastatic disease (n = 22) had significantly lower mean ADCs than did those without metastases (1.27 × 10-3 vs 1.43 × 10-3 mm2/s; p = 0.047). The ADC of PDAC had a positive correlation with survival: patients with PDAC with lower ADCs (< 1.36 × 10-3 mm2/s) had significantly worse 4-year OS rates than did patients with higher ADC values (p = 0.036).
CONCLUSION: Pretreatment ADC values of PDAC may be significantly lower in patients who have or will develop metastatic disease and may correlate with worse OS.