Connective Tissue Disorders in Childhood: Are They All the Same?
Radiographics. 2019 Jan-Feb;39(1):229-250. doi: 10.1148/rg.2019180078.
Navallas M1, Inarejos Clemente EJ1, Iglesias E1, Rebollo-Polo M1, Antón J1, Navarro OM1.
Systemic connective tissue disorders are characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and multiorgan system involvement. Juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with or without associated antiphospholipid syndrome; juvenile dermatomyositis; sclerodermiform syndromes, including systemic and localized sclerodermas and eosinophilic fasciitis; mixed connective tissue disease; and Sjögren syndrome are the disorders that affect children most frequently. Diagnosis is difficult, because the clinical presentation of patients is diverse, from mild to severe disease. In addition, all organs may be affected. However, a variety of imaging techniques are now available to investigate rheumatic disease in children. These imaging modalities offer the potential for earlier diagnosis and improved assessment of therapeutic response. This article reviews the main connective tissue disorders that affect children, highlighting their key imaging features on images acquired with different diagnostic imaging modalities and correlating these features with clinical and pathologic findings, when available. ©RSNA, 2019.